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Title: Natural mutations of human XDH promote the nitrite (NO2-)-reductase capacity of xanthine oxidoreductase: a novel mechanism to promote redox health?
Authors: Massimo, G.
Keywords: Đột biến tự nhiên; nitrite; oxy hóa khử; tăng cường sức khỏe
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: BioRxiv
Abstract: Several rare genetic variations of human XDH have been shown to alter xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity leading to impaired purine catabolism. However, XOR is a multi-functional enzyme that depending upon the environmental conditions also expresses oxidase activity leading to both O2·- and H2O2 and nitrite (·NO2-) reductase activity leading to NO. Since these products express important, and often diametrically opposite, biological activity consideration of the impact of XOR mutations in the context of each aspect of the biochemical activity of the enzyme is needed to determine the potential full impact of these variants. Herein, we show that known naturally occurring hXDH mutations do not have a uniform impact upon the biochemical activity of the enzyme in terms of uric acid (UA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (·NO) formation. We show that the His1221Arg mutant, in the presence of xanthine, increases UA, O2·- and NO generation compared to the WT, whilst the Ile703Val increases UA and ·NO formation, but not O2·-. We speculate that this change in the balance of activity of the enzyme is likely to endow those carrying these mutations with a harmful or protective influence over health that may explain the current equipoise underlying the perceived importance of XDH mutations. We also suggest that targeting enzyme activity to enhance the NO2--reductase profile in those carrying such mutations may provide novel therapeutic options, particularly in cardiovascular disease
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